PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. As of today we have 78,, eBooks for you to download for free. No annoying ads, no download limits, enjoy . Civil Engineering Drawing and House Planning [B. P. Verma] on peypredkoefritlec.cf for examination in building drawing university questions chapter 2?stairs and of the month in fiction, nonfiction, mysteries, children's books, and much more. A horizontal section is cut at the mid height of the windows, to get the plan of the building. Page 4. 4. A vertical section is cut to get the Front Sectional Elevation.
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The sponsoring editor for this book was Larry S. Hager and the production . civil engineering environmental design and construction management. A registered The exterior of the building is shown in drawings, called ele- vations. The 30 best civil engineering books, such as Structural Dynamics, Rock Slope The drawings shown in this book are created using AutoCAD and Paint software. Table of .. Hence, the proposal of high-rise buildings was put forward. Civil Engineering Notes · Home · Civil Engineering - A Brief Introduction · Vocabulary · External Site (peypredkoefritlec.cf) · My Book · Basic Engineering.
The waste pipes should be separated from house drain by means of gully traps to prevent the entry of foul gases, vermin etc into the building. Traps are required for very sanitary fixture and they should be as close to the fixtures as possible. C The different types of water supply pipes like communication pipes, supply pipes, distribution pipes, consumers pipes and location of ferrules stop cocks and storage tanks are as shown in the Fig 4. General layout of water supply arrangements single storey buildings: The plan of layout of water supply arrangements is as shown in fig 4.
The details of the layout of water supply arrangement in multi storeyed building is shown in fig 4. Fig 4. These are the receptacles, devices or appliances required for the efficient collection and removal of waste water from the building.
The sanitary fittings used in the drainage system of buildings include traps, water closets,.
The layout of the drainage in single storeyed building as shown in fig 3. The drainage system in building shall be provided as per IS I. Overhead tanks or elevated reservoirs are constructed at an elevation from ground level.
They may be of any shape like rectangle, circular or elliptical. The R. The columns are connected by R. C slab is cover is provided on top with manhole opening.
Following accessories provided may be identified on the drawing. Inlet pipe: Water enters the tank through the inlet pipe. A bell mouth is provided at the top of pipe and duct foot bend at bottom connecting horizontal and vertical pipes. A reflux valve is provided to prevent water from returning into the pipe.
Draw the sectional elevation and plan of an R. C tank given and show the pipelines details 1. Height of tank above G. A septic tank is an underground chamber in which the excreta from lavatories is digested by anaerobic action. Normally the septic tank is designed for disposal of night soil from lavatories. The sullage water from washbasins, sinks etc are dispersed into a garden.
The liquid discharge from the septic tank after digestion called the effluent, should be given secondary treatment. The layout for a septic tank sewerage system should be simple and as direct as possible.
The pipes should be laid in straight lines in both vertical and Horizontal planes as far as possible. The septic tank consists of a rectangular or circular underground chamber built with brick masonary or stone masonary. It should be plastered inside and outside with 1: The floor should be constructed with of 1: The septic tank should have a minimum liquid capacity of litres with a minimum width of mm and depth mm. A minimum free board of mm should be provided.
The following are the components of septic tank. The pipe should be fixed inside the tank with top level extending above slum level and bottom limb extending about mm below top water level. For wider tanks, a baffle wall should be provided mm from the inlet of the tank, extending mm below the invert of the inlet pipes and mm above the top water level. The invert of the pipe should be 50mm below the invert of the inlet pipe. A deflector is provided at the base of the scum board to prevent particles from reaching the outlet weir.
Where the capacity of the septic tank exceeds litres, the tank is divided into 2 chambers by partition. Suitable - 40 -. Openings and cover: Each compartment should be provided with a rectangular or circular openings with a cover of R. The cover should neatly fit the openings to prevent water entering through it. Ventilating pipe: Every septic tank should be provided with a ventilating pipe of dia 50mm. The top of pipe should be provided with mosquito prof mesh.
The pipe should extend to a height of 2m when the tank is 20m away from the building and 2m above the top of building if located closer than 20m. The sizes of septic tanks for 20 users for housing colonies upto persons and for hotels and boarding schools are given in the tables as shown.
The size of septic tanks are based in certain assumptions while choosing the size of septic tank. For population over , the tank may be divided into Independent parallel chambers for ease maintenance and cleaning. Liquid depth for stated interval of sludge with drawal Once in Once in a 2 Years Year 5 m 4 m 1.
The disposal of effluent of septic tank by soil absorption system is known as dispersion trench and is suitable when the soil is porous and is capable of absorbing the effluent.
The dispersion trench consists of a trench in which open jointed pipes are laid and surrounded by coarse aggregate media and overlaid by fine aggregates. The effluent gets dispersed through the open joints and is absorbed in the neighbouring soil. The dispersion trenches should be 0. The trench should be covered with about mm of ordinary soil to form a mound and turf grown on it. The finished top surface may be kept at least mm above ground level to prevent direct flooding of the trench during rains.
Dia of the pipe from the septic tank. A manhole is an opening by which a person can reach a drain, a sewer or other closed structure for the purpose of inspection, cleaning and other maintenance operations and the opening is provided with suitable cover at top.
Manholes are provided at every change of alignment, every change of gradient, every junction of two or more sewers; head of all sewers or branches and wherever there is change in size of sewers. At manholes the sewer is ended and an open channel is provided through which the sewage flows.
Manhole has two parts 1. Manhole chamber 2. Access shaft. Manhole chamber provides working space for inspection, testing or clearance of obstruction. The access shaft is the vertical passage to the manhole chamber. In very large sewers where a man can stand conveniently; the manhole chamber may be avoided and the sewer is connected by access shaft. The dia of sewers may be assumed as 0. Assume other data suitably.
The main advantage of locating the plant at such a place will be that the water will reach every consumer with more pressure and purity. If the city is situated on the bank of the river, the treatment plant should be located near the source, because in this case the length of rising mains will be small and muddy water need not be pumped which may cause quick wearing of the pipes.
One complete water treatment plant requires the following process starting from the source of water upto the distribution zone in order of sequence. A well equipped laboratory should be provided the treatment plant, to check the quality of raw water and tested water.
According to the variation in impurities, the treatment process should be changed. Laboratory tests can also increase the efficiency of plant. Presence of B. Coli group 2. Plate-count for bathing and swimming pool waters 3. Examination and enumeration of microscopic organism and amorphous matter. If sewage is disposed of finally in the river or natural stream, the treatment plant should be located on the river bank care should be taken while locating the site, that it should be on the down stream side of the city and sufficiently away from the water intake works.
The treatment plant should be on the down stream side of the bathing ghats. If finally sewage is to be applied on land, the treatment plant should be located near the land at such a place from which the treated sewage can easily flow under gravitational forces towards the disposal points.
The plant should not be much far away from the town to reduce the length of sewerline. On the otherhand, the site should not be so close to the town, that it may cause difficulties in the expansion of the town and pollute the general atmosphere by smell and fly nuisance. All the units should be located in order of sequence, so that the sewage from one process should directly go into the next process.
If possible all the units of plant should be located at such elevation that sewage from unit to next flow under gravity only. All the treatment units should be arranged in such away that minimum area is required, it will also ensure economy in its cost.
Staff quarters and office should also provided near the treatment plant so that operator can watch the plant easily. By-pass and overflow weirs should be provided to cut of operation any unit when required. All the channels, conducts should be laid in such a way as to obtain flexibility, convenience and economy in the operation. A well quipped laboratory should be provided at the treatment plant to check the quality of sewage before and after treatment according to the variations in the impurities, the treatment processes should be altered.
The efficiency of the plant can be increased by the laboratory tests of sewage during various processes. By testing the sewage after the treatment it can be ascertained wheather it has reached the required standard at which it can be disposed off or not. Before starting construction work of buildings or other engineering work at site, the detailed drawing of the project a is prepared.
The sets of these drawings are required in the office of approving authority, design office, architect office field engineers for construction.
As such we require 5 or 6 sets of detailed drawings drawn by draughtsmen, it will be costly and we require lot of labour and time. So for saving labour and time, the detailed drawings are prepared on tracing paper or tracing cloth. After these drawings are approved by the competent authority, its prints are taken out..
Now a days, most of the engineering drawings are prepared on the tracing paper taking great care and blue prints or Ammonia prints can be prepared from these drawings. Tracing papers of reputed brands are used for preparing drawings now a days. In drawing offices architectural offices and other engineering drawing offices, these drawings are prepared on the tracing papers which saves time and these drawings are used directly for taking out the ammonia prints.
While preparing the drawings on tracing papers, all the line work is usually done in penal but the lettering and heading etc can be done either in pencil or in ink.
These prepared drawings are carefully protected for keeping them as record. These should be kept in cabinets meant for keeping the record of engineering drawings When permanent record of drawings is required to be kept for years as in case of land registration papers etc; tracing cloth is used for preparation of drawings.
Drawings on tracing cloth are drawn in good water proof blank ink. Tracing cloth is a transparent cloth like tracing paper, drawings prepared on tracing cloth take more time and Ammonia or blue prints are taken out from the drawings directly. While keeping the. In the drawing offices various types of drawing are prepared sometimes many sets of the same drawing are required.
As the prints can not be taken out from the drawing sheets. So it is required to prepare tracings of drawings on tracing paper or tracing cloth. For doing tracing work from the drawing sheets; the tracing table is used. Tracing table is a wooden table box which has a glass top.
At the bottom of box some electric bulbs or fluorescent tubes are fixed for providing light to the box top. The drawings whose tracing is required to be prepared is placed at the top of glass. The drawing becomes visible at the top of the glass and thus the tracing are drawn in pencil or ink as per requirement After computing the tracing of the drawing it is carefully compared and corrections if any are incorporated in the tracing. The blueprint or ammonia prints are then prepared from these tracings.
Readymade sensated paper for Ammonia prints is available in the market. Ammonia prints taken in two varieties i. The expose for ammonia or azo prints is done in a pressure frame for 1 to 2 minutes and developed in a chamber containing liquid ammonia. No water is required for ammonia prints Now a days Ammonia prints are prepared in electrically operated ammonia printing machine.
A simple type of Ammonia printing machine has a row of 1 to 15 fluresent tubes, which are used for exposing purpose. It has a motor over which series of belts are operated. The tracing and ammonia paper are fed into the machine, which automatically move along with belts which are operated by the motor in a controlled speed. The drawing is thus exposed by means of fluoresant. The exposed paper is then developed in a chamber containing liquid Ammonia. The ammonia chamber may be attached to the printing machine or it may be attached to the printing machine or it may be in the form of separate box.
But it is usually a separate wooden or steel sheet vertical box. It has a hinged door at top or side and an ammonia chamber at bottom to keep the ammonia. The prints are fed into the chamber and after sometime, these are taken out as finished prints It is necessary to note that the sensatised paper should be kept and stored in a dark and cool place and it is better to keep it in light proof tin case be cause exposure to light spoils the paper.
The Ammonia paper should also be kept away from the Ammonia fume. Draw the conventional signs for the following 1. Brick 4. Wood 7. Draw the symbols for the sanitary installations 1. Shower head 2. Indian type W. Bath tub 4. Washbasin 5. Cooking platform 6.
Kitchen sink 3. Draw the electrical symbols for the following 1. One way switch 2. Bell 3. Ceiling Fan 4. Pump 5. Exhaust pan 6. Earth Point 4. Draw the cross section of load bearing wall foundation details to a scale of 1: Width of C. Width of first footing in brick masonary 1: Width of second footing in brick masonary 1: Width of wall in super structure in brick masonary 1: Flooring with 25mm thick polished stone slabs x mm over mm thick C.
The remaining depth is filled with crushed stone or gravel or sand. Draw the cross section of Isolated square R. Size of footing mm x mm 2. Shape of footing trapezoidal with vertical depth of mm each side tapers from to mm.
Steel reinforcement for the footing: Size of columns mm x mm 5. Steel reinforcement for columns: Lateral ties for columns: Covers Side cover to longitudinal reinforcement is 40mm.
Anchorage for longitudinal reinforcement all the 6 bars of 16mm dia are taken down and extended in horizontal direction to a length of mm beyond the face of the column and tied to the reinforcement of the footing in the form of dowel bars.
Draw a suitable scale the elevation, section and plan of the following door, 1. Be the first to review this item site Bestsellers Rank: What other items do customers download after viewing this item? A Text Book. No customer reviews. Share your thoughts with other customers. Write a product review.
Pages with related products. See and discover other items: Back to top. Get to Know Us. Audible Download Audio Books. In these projects the tools and techniques are well known but the final outcome is uncertain. On large, commercial projects the submittal process can involve thousands of different materials, fabrications and equipment. Ancient Greeks invented the crane and since then the technology has advanced manifold. Structural Frame 2 Hr. Your direct construction labor and materials costs 2.
Chapter 2 is designed to help the project manager plan the risk management process, form the project risk management team, and prepare a budget for project risk management activities. Best Value Method: The best value method involves evaluating and ranking contractors based on their bids and qualifications, and assessing who is the most qualified for the best price.
Getting Projects Approved. Business implementation projects produce working processes. They should be ready at all times to inspect and do a hands-on supervision of all work done by the construction crew.
Size and Type of Construction Project. As a world leader in project management, we offer you extensive experience in all aspects of construction. Benefit from the information advantage over your competitors! Posted: November, Back to top five types of project: differences between project types: Construction projects produce artefacts.
There are different types of drawings for different purposes. Here are the Small Project Awards winners by category text and Different types of cranes used in the construction industry are described in this article. In construction every project is unique, with a distinct set of local factors such as size of project, desirability, level of competition, flexibility of specifications, work Key Terms in Construction Bidding.
Construction plans and leads for new building projects. Surveyed project size: One of the main factors having the highest ranking is the size of project presented by project budget which can be classified as: Small projects which its budget is less than 10 EGP millions.
A project classification includes a class category and a class code. The following lists identify the recommended approximate team size for different situations. As Project Class increases, so do the expected internal levels of project approval and formalization.
Understanding a set of architectural drawings is critical to efficient and accurate work in 3ds Max, A complete set of construction documents can be large—30 or more drawings, or small—10 to 15 drawings—depending on the size and type of project. Roles in construction projects Will Hughes and John Murdoch, University of Reading, UK ISBN Acknowledgements This is the final report of a research project undertaken at the An astute Construction Supervisor keeps an eye on the excavation, looking for soil changes that could cause project problems.
Project Risk Management is the processes, policies, and procedures, implemented by the project manager, to identify, analyze, manage, and respond to potential project risks.
Construction beams, which are used for support in construction projects, support the structural integrity of buildings. The amount of contingency is based on historical experience and the expected difficulty of a particular construction project. Off-site is a building process of delivery as much as it is an amalgamation of building products.
Engineering News-Record ENR , a trade magazine for the construction industry, each year compiles and reports data about the size of design and construction companies. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. We hope The survey covers construction work done each month on new structures or improvements to existing structures for private and public sectors.
Missing Contracts. Start studying 5 Types of building construction. To get the Project Class, start with the Project Size In this article, we will discuss different types of construction drawings also known as working drawing.
Construction insurances are required for every single construction project. Trees damaged during construction projects may take years to exhibit symptoms. What is a Construction Bond? There are several types of construction bonds used to guarantee construction, often required by the government for public jobs. In addition to the drawings noted above, it is not unusual to find other drawings included.
Green Building Council, the construction sector uses more than million tons of material a year, many of which has an adverse impact on the environment. Four types of construction defects Over time, the legal process to address construction defect claims has settled on four general categories of deficiencies — design, material, construction, and the way the building or structure is operated and maintained.
The lists of materials needed in the construction process. With multiple stakeholders, hundreds if not thousands! LOGO Why is it important to know different project types? You will also be notified of new projects that match your search profile. The size of the project is used to determine the extent to which project management practices are formally applied to the project. This documentation is important because multiple estimators may be involved on the project; complex projects in particular take years to develop and estimates must be This is a list of building materials.
So, what does this all mean? It means that determining the ideal team size is difficult, but it is doable! Based on the needs of the project, a leader must identify how close team members will be working together and the types of tasks required. Planning is critical at the start of the project before work begins, but, planning also needs to be done daily.
Sizing a project determines the relative size of a project effort. We cover commercial and residential construction, focusing on topics like technology, design, regulation, legal What are the main Characteristics of Construction Projects? When you say characteristics of construction projects, it is not clear whether you are talking about construction techniques, soil equipment types, project size, and complexity.
The physics of how nail works are simple. Construction Dive provides news and analysis for construction industry executives. Building permits are typically required for new buildings, additions, renovations, demolitions, prefabricated structures, temporary buildings, manufactured homes, electrical systems, plumbing systems, HVAC systems, fireplaces, pools, decks, fences, etc.
The JCT Construction Management Contract is for use on construction projects where the employer appoints separate trade contracts to carry out the works, and a construction manager to oversee the completion of the works for a fee. It is particularly important to realize when the traditional project management technique is in-appropriate and when it needs to be modified.
With weekly exclusive updates, we keep you in touch with the latest project management thinking. Choose the right one for you from the large number of construction projects! Respond to changes. We provide an important knowledge base for those involved in managing projects of all kinds.
No matter the size or type of construction project, cost estimating is only one piece of the puzzle. Each item on this is referenced on the plan and elevation drawings. The nature and characteristics of the project must dictate the type of project management approach to be taken.