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PDF | La capacidad de percibir, valorar y expresar emociones, propias y ajenas, reflejada en el concepto de Inteligencia Emocional tiene una alto impacto en. Inteligência emocional: a compreensão das emoções em crianças do pré- escolar. Conference Paper (PDF Available) · July with Reads. PDF | El objetivo del presente estudio fue analizar la relación entre la inteligencia emocional y el clima familiar. Se realizó un estudio.
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The questionnaire, which contained 43 questions, was structured in 7 sections covering various aspects of the education received, the transition to the labour market, skills and satisfaction, among others. More specifically, the questionnaire includes the following sections: Personal information; B. University education; C.
First job after graduation; D. Current situation; F. Current job; G. Skills and H. Other data. The criteria for extrinsic success were obtained from the salary level and the level of the job held at the time the survey was performed.
The salary level was measured by gross monthly income coded into seven categories item 26 of the questionnaire: The midpoints considered in each category were as follows: The job level was measured by regrouping the 28 occupations included in item 23 of the questionnaire into 5 categories, where 1 included less skilled positions such as "agricultural labourer" and 5 included higher level positions such as "company director".
In the first phase, which was conducted when the students were taking the final year of their degree, together with other tests and in this order, we applied the TMMS questionnaire and Cattell and Cattell's factor "g" test to an initial sample of subjects. Three years after the first study, during the academic year, the initial sample was reduced to a sample of graduates, who completed a questionnaire designed to gather information on the employment status of the graduates and their access to the labour market.
This questionnaire, which took no more than 30 minutes to complete, was completed electronically within three months of the date it was set. The study sample was composed of graduates who said they were working when they answered the questionnaire. This is a predictive correlational design, in which the hierarchical regression procedure is used as an analysis technique, and salary and job level used as criteria to examine the specific contributions of emotional intelligence, notwith-standing the contributions made by general intelligence.
Descriptive and comparison analyses of the means between sexes were also carried out. The data analysis was performed using version 20 of the SPSS package. Table 1 shows the descriptive analyses of each variable in the total sample and by sex. It also shows the differences in the means between sexes in each variable included in the study, when the sample is not composed of the same percentage of men and women. As can be seen, the values in all the variables are very similar, although for salary, men earn slightly more than women, and the same is true of the relative score for job level.
The t test results for the difference of means for independent samples show that there are only significant differences in favour of men in age and job level. There are no significant differences in salaries, general intelligence or any of the aspects of the PEI. Levene's test also shows the existence of homogeneity in the variances between men and women in all the variables.
Table 2 presents the correlation coefficients for examining the association between the dimensions of general intelligence, perceived emotional intelligence TMMS Attention, TMMS clarity, TMMS control and extrinsic career success measures salary and job level.
The results in Table 2 show that the IQ showed no significant relationship with any of the extrinsic career success criteria, and that the dimensions of perceived emotional intelligence, TMMS Control. None of them is significantly related to job level.
No significant relationships between the dimensions of perceived emotional intelligence and IQ were observed.
Finally, the two criteria used, salary and job level, were also significantly related. We conducted a hierarchical regression analysis to examine the incremental prediction of the dimensions PEI on IQ for the two criteria. Meanwhile, the increase in the variance explained by the dimensions of PEI were not statistically significant for job level. The individual variable that showed the greatest relationship with salary is TMMS control, whereas the variables that were negatively and significantly related to job level were sex and TMMS attention.
Few studies have analyzed the predictors of career success at the start of the career. In this study, we aimed to test whether two of them, general mental ability, as measured by IQ, and the dimensions of Perceived Emotional Intelligence, which are usually included in other studies with samples with greater professional experience, would also predict career success in the early stages of the career.
More specifically, we sought to ascertain whether PEI makes a specific contribution to the prediction of extrinsic career success beyond contribution made by general intelligence. We used two types of extrinsic criteria salary and occupational level , and found that the starting salary was positively predicted by PEI and more specifically by the TMMS control dimension of PEI; however, the dimensions of PEI fail to make a significant contribution in the case of job level, although the job level was predicted negatively by sex and by the TMMS attention dimension of PEI.
The results show that beyond general intelligence, emotional intelligence contributes to the level of salary received, while this contribution is not significant in the professional level achieved.
The results also show that professionals with higher levels of emotional self-regulation TMMS control achieve higher incomes and those with lower levels of attention to their own emotions TMMS attention achieve a higher occupational level.
Although our hypothesis has only been partially confirmed, it therefore supports the studies that have found incremental validity for emotional intelligence on cognitive skills Law et al. The greatest predictive power of emotional intelligence on general intelligence is possibly located in the unique requirements associated with the responsibilities of the jobs. In order to obtain this help, it is essential to have certain socioemotional skills that contribute to job performance, enabling individuals to regulate their emotions in order to deal with stress effectively, work well under pressure, adapt to organizational change, achieve better relations at work, work better within a team and build social capital Lopes et al.
This study also shows that the predictors of salary and job level are different - TMMS control for the former and TMMS attention and sex for the latter. With regard to salary, our results reinforce the importance of emotional regulation. The dimension of TMMS control, involving aspects such as "having an optimistic outlook, thinking about pleasant things, having positive thoughts or making sure of being in a good mood" , is related to the salary level achieved. The importance of this dimension of EI has been demonstrated with other criteria such as performance at work Law et al.
As for job level, the existence of significant negative relationships between it and the perceived emotional intelligence dimension of TMMS attention, described by items such as "I pay attention to my feelings" could be explained by the negative impact of excessive attention to one's emotions on overall performance, and therefore on the promotions received.
Sex is also a predictor of job level, with a negative sign, indicating that men reach higher level positions than women at the start of their career.
Similar results were found by Rode et al. Replication of these results in other studies might among other things reveal some degree of preference for males in recruitment for high level positions, which could have significant implications for regulations on gender equality.
Interestingly, this gender gap is absent in the case of salary levels. The fact that there are only differences between men and women in job level but not in salary or any of the variables related to PEI, except age, suggests that the explanatory variables of the gender effect fall outside the variables included in the study, and therefore the fact that there are more women than men in the study did not influence the results.
Finally, the third dimension of PEI, TMMS clarity, described by indicators such as "having clear feelings, being able to define them, knowing how one feels and understanding emotions" does not contribute to obtaining with higher salaries or with a higher professional level at the start of the career. When evaluating the results, it is important to consider the strengths and limitations. A first limitation of the study is the specification of the model.
Although this study does not test a comprehensive model of the variables related to career success, but rather a model that analyzes the influence of the dimensions of PEI in predicting career success, if relevant variables in this case such as personality are omitted after controlling for the effect of general intelligence, the model may have a specification error which affects the results. A second limitation of this study is related to the sample size.
This study may have lacked sufficient power to corroborate the statistical significance of the relationships that would have been found if a larger sample had been used. A third limitation, also derived from the sample size, may be the difficulty in disaggregating subsamples by qualification in order to ascertain the possible differential behaviour of the variables studied in different qualifications.
On the other hand, one of the strengths of the study is that it is based on longitudinal data from the same sample of graduates who are working and who were monitored from their university studies until their employment, three years after completing those studies, which enables causal inferences to be made to a great extent.
In order to establish the links between emotional intelligence and career success more precisely, we must take into account the emotional intelligence model on which the type of measure used is based, the inclusion of other variables such as personality as well as overall intelligence, the consideration of possible mediating variables, the separation of independent variables depending on whether they are proximal or distal, and the use of other homogeneous criteria for success.
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