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A staple in north Indian restaurant menus across the world, this chickpea classic, called chana masala, raises the humble chickpeas, also referred to as. We Indians are very opinionated about everything. You mention a particular dish and chances are that someone's mother or grandmother has the best recipe. Indian Cooking Unfolded: A Master Class in Indian Cooking, with Easy Recipes Using 10 Ingredients or Less. Pages · · MB ·
Continue to roast the ribs meat side up, until the glaze looks slightly opaque and the meat is very tender, 10 to 15 minutes longer. Let the ribs rest covered with aluminum foil for 5 to 10 minutes before slicing them between the bones.
Prepare the ribs: Mix the ginger, 1 teaspoon of salt, and the mustard together in a small bowl. Smear this chunky rub over the meaty side of the ribs. You can cook the ribs right away or you may also choose to cover the ribs and refrigerate them overnight to allow the flavors to permeate the meat. Make the glaze: Combine the tomato paste, maple syrup or molasses, lime or lemon juice or tamarind paste, cumin, cayenne, cloves, and 1 teaspoon of salt in a small bowl and stir thoroughly.
When you are ready to grill the ribs, heat a gas or charcoal grill to high.
Lightly spray the grill grate with cooking spray. If you are using a gas grill, reduce the heat to medium. If charcoal is the name of your game, spread the hot coals to the sides for indirect heat. Since the same company markets the seeds, they know what are the fertilisers required, the quantity, and the time of application.
They are more aware of the likely pests, different pesticides, and combinations. So we know what he is using in his farm. We also learn from watching other successful farmers in the village. These days, pesticide and seed companies are setting up demonstration plots in villages and supplying farmers with seeds, fertilisers and pesticides.
These plots are closely monitored by the staff of these companies.
They pass on this knowhow to the farmer. This helps us to decide on which company seeds, fertilisers and pesticides to use. We see the output practically and get to know details from our fellow villagers. They do not know the actual situation in the fields.
They are not updated. It is their job. But for us it is our life. The scientist gets paid his salary even though he fails but we can't afford to do that.
Health impact: signs and symptoms The farmers seem to be aware that continuous exposure to agrochemicals lead to illness. They reported that, during hot summer and windy seasons, many farmers who spray pesticides experienced dizziness, nausea and itching of the skin. Some of the farmers associated these chemicals with rising instances of cancer among farmers and their families, diabetes, greying of hair, mental instability, lack of physical strength, and youth taking to alcohol.
A small capful can kill a person within minutes. If ingested accidentally it will lead to nausea, headaches, blurring of the sight, skin itching. These things keep happening. In the same family, a 22 year old woman had throat cancer and her father had colon cancer. They do not have any [bad] habits, how can you explain this? There are many other cases that people do not disclose. One of the villagers few years ago was spraying pesticides and he fell unconscious.
He never recovered completely. The family went to doctors, healers and everyone but there is no change. He is normal but talks to himself and laughs. The youth these days can't even work as long as we do in the farms. They lack strength. They get tired easily. That is why I think most of the younger generation are drinking too much. Safety precautions and the risks to family Most subjects were aware of risks involved in handling pesticides.
However, it was observed that risk perception was not translated into practices that involved safety, protection and safe disposal measures.
Protection gear was not worn while mixing and spraying pesticides. The small farmers mixed pesticides at home where they are stored, and carry them in spray tankers to the farm. Sometimes farmers mixed agrochemicals in the fields, and washed the containers in nearby water sources. The empty cans and packets with traces of chemicals were left strewn in the fields or near water sources. It was also observed that the concept of risk was linked to gendered ideas related to risk behaviour. Thus, a male cotton farmer illustrated his reasoning: Many of us are careless when it comes to taking safety precautions though we know about the side-effects.
We have been doing this for years and feel nothing will happen to us. If someone tries to be more others make fun of them saying: why you are wrapping yourself like a woman? Participant 5, 30 yrs, male cotton farmer, FGD1 Some farmers highlighted that they were not trained in handling pesticides. They followed what others had been doing. Any attempt to implement safety measures was ridiculed. For a small farmer, it was expensive to buy and maintain protective gear and viewed as a worthless investment: We don't have training on pesticide and fertiliser use.
And all these protective gloves, masks are expensive and are not easily available. Small farmers can't spend money on these fancy things and also maintain them. Participant 2, 32 yrs, male cotton farmer, FGD1 Ethnographic inquires revealed that the role of women in pesticide application decreased with the advent of newer agrochemicals which required smaller quantities and less water.
Earlier, women were largely involved in fetching water, and in preparing the pesticide mix. Application of herbicides reduced the exposure of women to harmful chemicals.
As a consequence, their involvement in weeding and exposure to pesticides was reduced. However, they continued to be exposed to such toxins as they are stored at home and during harvesting food grain, vegetables and cotton. Help seeking behaviour Majority of farmers reported they did not seek medical attention for minor incidents of pesticide poisoning.
They explained the impact would subside after some time. However, with the increased awareness, they were concerned about the health effects of chronic exposure to agrochemicals but were unsure about mitigating these effects and deciding when to consult a doctor. Even if we get exposed accidentally to any chemicals, we immediately wash the area.
We do not go to a doctor for these small things.
The symptoms like redness of the eyes, dizziness, and skin rashes will go away by themselves. Participant 8, 60 yrs, male cotton farmer, FGD1. Some admitted to a sense of confusion and hypothesised chemical aetiologies for chronic and serious health conditions: These things are ok, but we do not know what these chemicals are doing to our organs inside the body.
As he [another subject in the FGD] said, they all might get accumulated and lead to cancer. These things we do not know until one is very sick and goes to a doctor. Participant 2, 32 yrs, male cotton farmer, FGD1 The study site included three unqualified doctors, locally known as RMP doctors, and a qualified Ayurvedic practitioner providing allopathic services. Interviews with RMP and mental health professionals from the nearby town indicated broader social determinants linked to health problems and suicides among farmers and explain outward migration.
Many elderly people come to me with body pains. Old age could be one reason but their worries and agony they face is translated into their pains. Their inability to take care of their agricultural lands has led to children moving out of the village. All [of this] impacts on them. I give them some vitamin tablets and an injection for pain relief. This makes them feel better.
They refer patients with medical complications to qualified doctors in the nearby town. This comprised a nexus involving referral networks to private diagnostic centres and nursing homes for which they get paid. It was observed that RMPs did not administer any treatment to subjects with pesticide ingestion, either accidental or willful. This is because until attempted suicide was a punishable offence according to the Indian Penal Code.
Suicide victims have to be taken to government hospitals as most private hospitals decline to admit them. They explained that: Most of the common ailments in the village are seasonal.
We deal with them. We do not treat any case of pesticide poisoning because it could lead to medico-legal problems for us. It involves dealing with police.
It is also risky for us as we can't save the patient. We immediately ask them to rush to the government hospital. RMP1; RMP2; RMP3; interview notes suggested similar practice amongst all 3 RMPs Response from psychiatrists in government and private sectors indicated that suicide amongst cotton farmers was a complex phenomenon interlinked with socio-economic conditions. There is no follow-up of treatment.
This leaves many patients untreated and vulnerable: There are instances of patients coming in after accidental exposure. Reports of young children accidentally ingesting chemicals are also there. Sometimes deliberate self-harm cases are also brought in as accidental exposure fearing police cases. Most patients who consume pesticides for attempted suicide reach [us] at an advanced stage. They are beyond any chance of revival. I think easy access to pesticides is an important issue.
In most of the suicide cases, victims take decisions impulsively. If the access to pesticides is restricted then I presume we can contain the numbers. Suicides among farmers are largely because of the debts and their inability to repay.
I do not completely see it as a public mental health problem. Psychiatrist, 39 yrs, Government hospital, interview notes Most suicides are a result of social and financial matters. Farmers commit suicide more because of their inability to clear their debts.
Therefore they seek treatment from temples, Babas and Dargahs rather than mental health professionals. The shortage of mental health professional also adds to this. These are just some of the processes that we have backed up and strengthened with our IT expertise.
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