Vogel analytical chemistry pdf

 
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  1. SearchWorks Catalog
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  3. Free Download Vogel's Textbook of Quantitative Chemical Analysis 5e | peypredkoefritlec.cf
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Systems analysis and design /Alan Dennis, Barbara Haley Wixom, Roberta M. Roth. know no matter Systems Analy Vogel's Textbook Practical Organic. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data. Vogel, Arthur Israel. Vogel's textbook of quantitative chemical analysis. - 5th ed. 1. Quantitative analysis. 1. Title II. Quantitative Chemical Analysis Daniel Harris 7th Full. Vogel's Textbook of Practical Organic Chemistry - 5th Edition - By a.I. Solutions Manual for Quantitative Chemical Analysis[1].

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Vogel Analytical Chemistry Pdf

VOGEL's. TEXTBOOK OF. QUANTITATIVE CHEMICAL ANALYSIS. FIFTH EDITION. Revised by the following members of. The School of Chemistry,. Thames. Vogel's Macro and semimicro qualitative inorganic analysis. First-3d ed. published under title: A text-book of qualitative chemical analysis; 4th ed. published. A Textbook of Qualitative Chemical Analysis (Vogel, Arthur I.) R. K. McAlpine View: PDF | PDF w/ Links. Related Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry.

Vogel's Quantitative chemical analysis Home Vogel's Quantitative chemical analysis. Quantitative Chemical Analysis. Read more. Quantitative Chemical Analysis, Seventh Edition. Quantitative Chemical Analysis, Solutions Manual. Quantitative Chemical Analysis, 8th Edition. Vogel's textbook of quantitative chemical analysis.

The femur has asymmetric condyles, the lateral being appreciably larger than the medial. While we observed general asymmetry in other ratites, the differential size between lateral and medial condyle appears to be greatest in the ostrich.

There is also a large lateral femoral epicondyle lateral to the lateral femoral condyle, forming a fibular trochlea. The tibiotarsus has lateral and cranial tibial crests extending from those two aspects of the proximal tibia.

Figure 2: Three-dimensional model of the ostrich right knee, showing bones, ligaments, and menisci. A Proximal view of ligaments, menisci, tibia, and fibula; B Cranial view of femur, tibia, fibula, proximal patella, distal patella, ligaments, and menisci.

DOI: The proximal patella therefore topologically corresponds to the single patella of other birds, which occupies a position within or slightly above the sulcus Shufeldt, ; Haines, ; Cracraft, , and its flattened morphology likewise is similar.

The distal patella, which has only been briefly mentioned in literature Macalister, ; De Vriese, ; Thompson, ; Bezuidenhout, ; Gangl et al.

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There was considerable variability in the distal patella lengths we observed in our dissected and museum specimens, however, the length does roughly correlate with femur length Table 1 , which suggests a correlation with age. Both patellae are enveloped by a thick, fibrous facial sheet to which many tendons contribute. While neither patella articulates directly with any other bone in the knee through an articular cartilage interface , the layer of fibrous tissue between the femur and proximal patella is thin and may allow transmission of contact forces in some poses or loading regimes.

Ligaments and menisci There are four primary ligaments which provide stability and alignment in the knee joint of ostriches, as in many other tetrapods Fig. A wide, flat collateral ligament spans the femorotibial joint space on either side, laterally and medially. The medial collateral ligament MedCL connects the medial femoral condyle to the tibiotarsus. It originates within a small fossa on the distal medial side of the medial femoral condyle and inserts distally to the tibial plateau on the medial edge of the proximal tibia.

The lateral collateral ligament LatCL originates on the distal part of the lateral femoral epicondyle, and inserts onto the fibula, on the posterior-distal corner of the lateral side of the bulbous epiphysis, as well as the lateral meniscus, on the lateral side of the large, pointed cranial extension of the meniscus.

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The cranial cruciate ligament CranCL is round in cross-section, originates caudally in the popliteal fossa between the femoral condyles and inserts cranially on the tibial plateau Fig. The caudal cruciate ligament CaudCL is thicker and flatter. It originates from a small impression on the medial side of the lateral femoral condyle, crosses over the top of the CranCL, and inserts on the caudomedial corner of the tibial plateau Fig. Figure 3: Cruciate ligament and meniscal insertion sites.

A Proximal view of the proximal right tibia and fibula, showing distal cruciate ligament and meniscal insertion sites B cruciate speckled and meniscal solid attachment sites on the distal femur left and right columns and proximal tibia central column. It is circular, thickest on its outermost aspect and thinner towards the incomplete centre, so that it forms a triangular wedge in cross section.

Cranially, the medial meniscus connects to the lateral meniscus. The lateral meniscus is smaller than the medial meniscus and is longer craniocaudally than it is wide mediolaterally. It sits primarily in the gap between the tibiotarsus and the fibula and extends cranially up the lateral femoral condyle.

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Myology From our MRI scan and dissections of the knee region, we identified 12 distinct muscles that cross the knee joint near the patellae see Hutchinson et al. Figure 4: Representation of knee, in anterolateral view, showing superficial A and deep B muscles that attach to the tendofascial sheet containing the two patellae.

The IC originates on the cranial end of the ilium and inserts into the superficial tendofascial sheet as well as the medial side of the tibial head.

The origin of the FMTLD is along the entire lateral femoral shaft and it inserts onto the deep tendofascial sheet above the lateral femoral condyle. The FMTLP origin occurs laterally on the trochanteric crest of the femur, and laterally on the proximal femoral shaft Gangl et al. A third femorotibial muscle, M. The thin, round tendon of the AMB1, which originates from the pectineal preacetabular process of the pubis, runs through the tendofascial sheet and directly behind the distal patella in a distolateral direction, toward its fusion with the tendinous origin of M.

We observed that there were no direct tissue connections between the AMB1 tendon and the patellae. The tendon was free to slip and move independently within the tendofascial sheet, behind the distal patella, unlike in many other neognath birds in which the AMB1 tendon perforates or grooves the front of the patella e.

However, we describe it here as it does run close to the patellae. The second head of M. However, it does not come near the patellae and so we do not further describe it. The lower limb muscles of ostriches also have associations with the patella. The GL originates on the proximolateral side of the distal patella and superficial tendofascial sheet, joining with the GM and GIM into a single gastrocnemius end-tendon distally, and inserting onto the tarsometatarsus after wrapping around the intertarsal joint.

The FL attaches to the distolateral side of the distal patella and splits into two tendons of insertion proximal to the intertarsal joint, Tendo lateralis and Tendo caudalis. Tendo lateralis inserts on the tendon of the M. The GM takes its origin from the superficial tendofascial sheet and the medial side of the distal patella, and joins the gastrocnemius end-tendon before the intertarsal joint. Other lower limb muscles such as M.

Discussion We scanned, modelled, and dissected an ostrich knee and found previously undescribed or unclear morphology which may be crucial in ostrich knee function. Literature and other specimens bolstered our findings. From the detailed, three-dimensional anatomical data that we collected, we are able to confidently describe the functional attachments of muscles to the tendofascial sheets containing the two patellae, suggest mechanical implications of these attachments in a dynamic limb, and compare our findings to previous anatomical descriptions.

Functional attachments To understand the loading across the knee joint of ostriches, identification and description of the tissues which directly interact with the two sesamoid bones is essential Figs.

The lower limb muscles of ostriches also have associations with the patella. The GL originates on the proximolateral side of the distal patella and superficial tendofascial sheet, joining with the GM and GIM into a single gastrocnemius end-tendon distally, and inserting onto the tarsometatarsus after wrapping around the intertarsal joint. The FL attaches to the distolateral side of the distal patella and splits into two tendons of insertion proximal to the intertarsal joint, Tendo lateralis and Tendo caudalis.

Tendo lateralis inserts on the tendon of the M. The GM takes its origin from the superficial tendofascial sheet and the medial side of the distal patella, and joins the gastrocnemius end-tendon before the intertarsal joint. Other lower limb muscles such as M.

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Discussion We scanned, modelled, and dissected an ostrich knee and found previously undescribed or unclear morphology which may be crucial in ostrich knee function. Literature and other specimens bolstered our findings. From the detailed, three-dimensional anatomical data that we collected, we are able to confidently describe the functional attachments of muscles to the tendofascial sheets containing the two patellae, suggest mechanical implications of these attachments in a dynamic limb, and compare our findings to previous anatomical descriptions.

Functional attachments To understand the loading across the knee joint of ostriches, identification and description of the tissues which directly interact with the two sesamoid bones is essential Figs.

The two sesamoids are embedded in sheets of tendofascial tissue that bond together at the proximal edge of the distal patella. The sheets are the origins and insertions of various leg muscles. Distally, the sheath attaches to the distal sesamoid.

The distal sesamoid also is part of the muscle origins of the GL proximal-laterally, the FL distal-laterally, and the GM medially. Based on our anatomical observations, we hypothesize that all seven of the muscles attached to the patellae would induce a compressive into the joint stress on the patellae.

This could create areas of large compressive and shear loading near the joint as the tissues wrap around the femoral condyles.

In addition to the proximal-distal loading, additional mediolateral loads may occur as a result of the tissues wrapping around the distal femur where there is a complex surface between the large lateral condyle and deep sulcus.

This variegated surface may induce higher stress concentrations in areas where the surface geometry is most irregular. Since then there have been several other descriptions. Thompson mentioned a small double patella in ostrich while De Vriese described the patellae as large, consisting of two successive parts which connected to the tibia by a short ligament.

Fowler claimed that ostriches only had a single ossified bone in the tendon which inserted onto the cnemial crest. We found this to be untrue of our adult subjects. In a juvenile ostrich hindlimb we observed joints which were not fully ossified and no patellae were detected, but it is still unclear when in ontogeny each patella ossifies. In more modern literature, there have been two primary papers providing thorough descriptions of the patellae and related ostrich knee anatomy Bezuidenhout, ; Gangl et al.

This account was also the first to detail muscle attachments to the two patellae. Muscles described in association with the patellae were the M.

We consider the three M. Gangl et al. The authors also detailed additional muscles which surround and attach to this tendofascial sheet. The muscles which Gangl et al.

Vogels quantitative chemical analysis ai vogel

The tendon of the M. The M. Additional modern studies have also shed light on the patellae through both osteological Wagner, and myological Zinoviev, ; Smith et al. Wagner added a description of the occurrence and shape of the proximal and distal patella of ostriches at various ages, as well as describing the fascia formed by the ends of multiple tendons which the two patellae are embedded. Zinoviev described the proximal patella as being embedded within the distal extension of the tendon of the M.

The concurrent existence of a distinct patella and tibial crest does not falsify the hypothesis that the tibial crest is a traction epiphysis in birds, because the patella could be independent from whatever ancestral sesamoid fused with the tibia to form a traction epiphysis Hutchinson, However, some birds have a proximally elongate tibial crest that has been proposed to be a patella fused to the proximal tibia Shufeldt, ; Shufeldt, ; Thompson, The extreme proximity of the distal patella to the tibial crest in ostriches, while autapomorphic, presents an example of an intermediate condition between the ancestral lack of ossification in the distal patellar tendon and the derived state of a proximally extended tibial crest.

Such evolutionary trajectories, however, have barely been studied in the lineages in which they may have occurred. Our study shows the need for careful re-examinations, using modern techniques such as 3D imaging, of phylogenetic patterns in the knee joint morphology of birds. Conclusion We have identified and described the tissues surrounding the knee joint in the ostrich and compared our findings to the previous literature.

We have also speculated on the mechanics and functions of the anatomical features which directly interact with the patellae. It is still not clear why the double patellae develop in the ostrich, and if particular mechanical factors play a primary role in determining their shape and location.

In future work, we intend to address these questions through modelling methods such as finite element analysis. We also thank Jeff Rankin and Luis Lamas for sharing their expertise in ratite anatomy. We thank the editor Laura Wilson and one anonymous reviewer in addition to reviewer James Neenan for their helpful critiques of the original manuscript.

Additional Information and Declarations John R. Hutchinson is an Academic Editor for PeerJ.

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